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How To View Stomata Under the Microscope

How To View Stomata Under the Microscope

Although not a mandatory experiment, measuring the stomatal density on a leaf surface can provide valuable practice in using microscopes and analysing data. Stomatal density, which refers to the number of stomata per unit area, can be a useful metric for biologists to evaluate a plant’s potential response to dry weather conditions or to anticipate its performance in windy or wet environments, especially when the plant is being relocated for agricultural or horticultural purposes.

What is stomata leaf density

Stomatal leaf density refers to the number of stomata, which are small pores on the surface of plant leaves, per unit area of the leaf surface. Stomata are responsible for regulating gas exchange in plants, allowing for the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen during photosynthesis and respiration. Stomatal density can vary widely between plant species and can be affected by various environmental factors such as light, temperature, and humidity.

Understanding stomatal density and its relationship with environmental factors is important for plant physiology research and can also have implications for agriculture and climate change studies.

You will need:

  • Microscope: A compound microscope is commonly used for viewing stomata. A stereomicroscope can also be used for observing larger stomata, but it may not provide enough magnification to see small stomata.
  • Microscope slides: Standard glass microscope slides are used for mounting the leaf samples.
  • Coverslips: Thin, clear coverslips are used to cover the leaf sample on the microscope slide.
  • Scalpel or razor blade: A sharp blade is used to cut thin sections of the leaf for mounting on the microscope slide.
  • Forceps or tweezers: These are used to handle the leaf samples without damaging them.
  • Staining solution (optional): Staining can be used to make the stomata more visible under the microscope. Commonly used stains include iodine, toluidine blue, and safranin.

It’s important to keep the equipment clean and in good condition to ensure accurate and reliable results. Additionally, appropriate safety measures should be taken when handling sharp blades and staining solutions.



  1. Take a leaf from the plant and cut a small section (about 1 cm x 1 cm) from it. Make sure the leaf section is fresh and hydrated.
  2. Place the leaf section on a microscope slide with the lower (abaxial) surface facing up. You can add a drop of water to the slide to prevent the leaf from drying out.
  3. Add a coverslip over the leaf section, making sure there are no air bubbles.
  4. Use a compound microscope to view the slide under low magnification (e.g., 10x or 20x) to locate the stomata.
  5. Once the stomata are located, switch to higher magnification (e.g., 40x or 100x) to observe them in more detail.
  6. Adjust the focus and lighting as needed to get a clear image of the stomata. You can also use staining methods to enhance the visibility of the stomata.
  7. Count the number of stomata in a given area to determine the stomatal density.

It’s important to note that the method for viewing stomata under a microscope may vary depending on the type of microscope and the staining technique used.

What leaves are good for stomata practicals?

In this video, Paul uses tradescantia zebrina but leaves from a variety of plant species can be used for stomata density experiments. However, some leaves are easier to work with and have a higher density of stomata, making them more commonly used. Some examples of leaves that are commonly used for stomata density experiments include:

  1. Tradescantia zebrina – this plant has large, flat leaves with a high density of stomata, and is commonly used in research on stomatal density.
  2. Brassica oleracea (cabbage) – the leaves of this plant are also flat and have a high density of stomata, making them a good choice for stomata density experiments.
  3. Hedera helix (ivy) – the leaves of ivy are relatively thin and have a high stomatal density, making them suitable for observing stomata under a microscope.
  4. Pelargonium x hortorum (geranium) – the leaves of this plant have a distinctive pattern of veins and a high stomatal density, making them easy to work with and suitable for stomata density experiments.
  5. Ficus elastica (rubber plant) – this plant has large, waxy leaves that are easy to handle and have a high density of stomata.

Overall, the choice of plant species for stomata density experiments may depend on factors such as availability, ease of use, and specific research questions.

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